Nuclear structure

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Nuclear structure

Atomic and Nuclear Structure. Atomic Structure and Spectra Emission spectrum of hydrogen Bohr model Bohr model: An electron orbits the positively charged nucleus in the same way that the earth orbits the Sun. Electrostatic attraction pulls the electron toward the nucleus. The electron orbits at high speed to prevent it from crashing into the nucleus.

The higher the energy level, the larger the radius from the nucleus. Emission spectrum of hydrogen: When an electron transitions from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, it emits electromagnetic radiation. The emission spectrum of hydrogen consists of sharp, distinct lines.

Atomic energy levels quantized energy levels for electrons The distinct lines of the emission spectrum prove that electron energy is quantized into energy levels. If electron energy is not quantized, then a continuous spectrum would be observed. The energy of the energy levels is governed by:where E is energy and n is the energy level. The equation is negative, so all energies are negative. Negative energies mean that it is energy that contributes to the "stability" of the system - the electron binding energy.

The more negative lower the energy, the more stable the orbit, the harder it is to knock out the electron. The less negative higher the energy, the less stable the orbit, the easier it is to knock out the electron.

At the highest energy, 0 eV, there is no binding energy, so the electron dissociates.

Atomic and Nuclear Structure

For atoms other than hydrogen, the shape of the energy level curve stays the same. However, the numerator is a constant other than The precise relationship for atoms other than hydrogen is:where Z is the atomic number.

Higher Z values give more negative binding energy more stable because the more charge, the more electrostatic attraction. The energy of the emitted or absorbed radiation is:where E is energy, f and v both mean frequency and c is the speed of light. The atomic number is what defines an element. When two things have the same number of protons, they are the same element. The atomic mass is used for an isotope.

The atomic weight is used for an element. In standard notation the atomic number is always at the bottom, and the weight is always on top: An easy way to remember this is that the atomic number is "fundamental" to the identity of the element, so it is located at the foundation.

Isotopes When two things have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, they are isotopes of the same element.

Isotopes often have similar chemical properties, but different stabilities some decay and give off radiation, some don't. Nuclear forces Two forces are at work in the nucleus: the strong force and the electromagnetic force.

The strong force binds the nucleons together, and therefore contributes to the binding energy. The electromagnetic force is due to electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged protons in the nucleus.At the center of every atom lies a small, dense nucleus, which carries more than The nucleus is a tightly bound system of protons and neutrons which is held together by strong forces that are not normally perceptible in nature because of their extremely short range.

The small size, strong forces, and many particles in the nucleus result in a highly complex and unique quantal system that at present defies exact analysis.

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The study of the nucleus and the forces that hold it together constitute the field of nuclear structure physics. See Atomic structure and spectraNeutronProtonQuantum mechanicsStrong nuclear interactions. The protons of the nucleus, being positively charged, generate a spherically symmetric electric field in which the atomic electrons orbit. The cloud of negatively charged atomic electrons normally balances the positive nuclear charge, making the atom electrically neutral.

The atomic number of protons is usually denoted by Z and the number of neutrons, which are electrically neutral, by N. Isotopes have the same atomic number, Zand hence are forms of the same chemical element, having the same chemical properties, but they differ in neutron number; isotones have a common number of neutrons, Nand isobars have the same mass number, A.

See Isobar nuclear physicsIsotoneIsotope. The internuclear forces generate an attractive potential field which holds the nucleus together and in which the nucleons orbit in highly correlated patterns. See Nuclear binding energy. A variety of sophisticated techniques have been developed for precise estimates of the nuclear charge distribution, including electron scattering, the study of muonic atoms, and the laser spectroscopy of hyperfine atomic structure. An overall picture of the nuclear charge distributions emerges.

The nuclear charge density saturates in the interior and has a roughly constant value in all but the lightest nuclei. The nucleus has a diffuse skin which is of nearly constant thickness.

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Many nuclei are found to have nonspherical shapes. Unlike the atom, which has a spherically symmetric Coulomb field generated by the nucleus, the nuclear field is composed of a complicated superposition of short-range interactions between nucleons, and the most stable nuclear shape is the one that minimizes the energy of the system.

In general, it is not spherical, and the nuclear shape is most simply described by a multipole power series, the most important term of which is the nuclear quadrupole moment. A positive quadrupole moment reflects the elongation of nuclei into a prolate or football-like shape, while a negative value reflects an oblate shape like that of Earth. See Nuclear moments. An accurate determination of nuclear matter distributions, that is, the distribution of both protons and neutrons in nuclei, is harder to precisely ascertain.

The variation of average binding energy with mass number is approximated by the Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula, which is noteworthy for its simplicity in reproducing the overall binding energy systematics. The formula is developed by modeling the nucleus on a liquid drop. By analogy with a drop of liquid, there is an attractive volume term, which depends on the number of particles; a repulsive surface-tension term; and a term due to the mutual Coulomb repulsion of protons, which is responsible for the decrease in binding energy for heavy nuclei.

The model is spectacularly successful in reproducing the overall trends in nuclear binding energies, masses, and the energetics of nuclear fission, and in predicting the limits of stability where neutrons and protons become unbound.

As in the case of predicting a mean nuclear shape, a comparison of the prediction of the Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula to measured masses shows periodic fluctuations with both N and Zwhich are due to the quantum shell effects. See Nuclear fission.Understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus is one of the central challenges in nuclear physics. The quantum mechanical nature of these particles appears via the Pauli exclusion principlewhich states that no two nucleons of the same kind can be at the same state.

Thus the fluid is actually what is known as a Fermi liquid. This simple model reproduces the main features of the binding energy of nuclei. The assumption of nucleus as a drop of Fermi liquid is still widely used in the form of Finite Range Droplet Model FRDMdue to the possible good reproduction of nuclear binding energy on the whole chart, with the necessary accuracy for predictions of unknown nuclei.

The expression "shell model" is ambiguous in that it refers to two different eras in the state of the art. It was previously used to describe the existence of nucleon shells in the nucleus according to an approach closer to what is now called mean field theory.

Nowadays, it refers to a formalism analogous to the configuration interaction formalism used in quantum chemistry. We shall introduce the latter here. Systematic measurements of the binding energy of atomic nuclei show systematic deviations with respect to those estimated from the liquid drop model. This observation led scientists to assume the existence of a shell structure of nucleons protons and neutrons within the nucleus, like that of electrons within atoms.

Indeed, nucleons are quantum objects. Strictly speaking, one should not speak of energies of individual nucleons, because they are all correlated with each other. However, as an approximation one may envision an average nucleus, within which nucleons propagate individually. Owing to their quantum character, they may only occupy discrete energy levels.

These levels are by no means uniformly distributed; some intervals of energy are crowded, and some are empty, generating a gap in possible energies. A shell is such a set of levels separated from the other ones by a wide empty gap. Each level may be occupied by a nucleon, or empty. Some levels accommodate several different quantum states with the same energy; they are said to be degenerate. This occurs in particular if the average nucleus has some symmetry.The atom consist of a small but massive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of rapidly moving electrons.

The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. In a neutral atom there are as many electrons as protons moving about nucleus. It is the electrons that are responsible for the chemical bavavior of atoms, and which identify the various chemical elements.

Hydrogen Hfor exampleconsist of one electron and one proton. The number of neutrons in a nucleus is known as the neutron number and is given the symbol N. The various species of atoms whose nuclei contain particular numbers of protons and neutrons are called nuclides.

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Each nuclide is denoted by chemical symbol of the element this specifies Z with tha atomic mass number as supescript. Thus the symbol 1 H refers to the nuclide of hydrogen with a single proton as nucleus. Atoms such as 1 H, 2 H whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons different A are known as isotopes.

The stable isotopes plus a few of the unstable isotopes are the atoms that are found in the naturally occuring elements in nature. However, they are not found in equal amounts. Some isotopes of a given element are more abundant than others. Assuming spherical shape, nuclear radii can be calculated according to following formula:.

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These are volumes of nuclei and atomic nuclei protons and neutrons contains of about The volume of an atom is about 15 orders of magnitude larger than the volume of a nucleus.

The Van der Waals radius, r wof an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom. These electrons together weigh only a fraction let say 0.

It may seem, that the space and in fact the matter is emptybut it is not. Due to the quantum nature of electronsthe electrons are not point particles, they are smeared out over the whole atom. The classical description cannot be used to describe things on the atomic scale. On the atomic scale, physicists have found that quantum mechanics describes things very well on that scale. Particle locations in quantum mechanics are not at an exact position, they are described by a probability density function.

Fundamental Particles. Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Mass and Energy. Notation of nuclei Source: chemwiki. Volume of an Atom and Nucleus. Structure of Matter. Is an atom an empty space? A figurative depiction of the helium-4 atom with the electron cloud in shades of gray.The LBNL Nuclear Physics Forum NP Forum is a weekly more or less seminar series covering topics in low-energy nuclear science, including nuclear structure, nuclear chemistry and heavy element research, applied physics and much more.

The NP Forum series involves the nuclear structure group, heavy element research group and research groups from the UC Berkeley campus.

Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame. The radionuclide I, with a half-life of These contributions to the I content on Earth pale in comparison, however, to the amount that has been released by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing centers, having contributed approximately 60 times the natural content.

For this capability to be realized, the I distribution throughout the environment needs to be established — previous measurements have primarily focused on nuclear facilities and nuclear disaster sites, leaving a large area of the globe unmeasured.

Water samples were collected from Lake Michigan and rivers throughout Michigan and analyzed for their I content through the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS for separation from the primary interference, I, using the time-of-flight technique. Wednesday, February 20,AM. Kyle LeachColorado School of Mines. Ritu KanungoSt. Mary's University. Umesh Garg, University of Notre Dame.

nuclear structure

Bethany Goldblum, University of California Berkeley. NP Forum Series Archives: Internal NP forum documents. Search this site. Nuclear Physics Forum. Wednesday, February 20,AM Prof.

Thursday, February 28,AM Dr. Thursday, March 7,AM Prof. Thursday, March 21,AM Dr. Thursday, April 18,AM Prof. Mary's University "Reaction spectroscopy unveils new features in rare isotopes".

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nuclear structure

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Nuclear structure

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nuclear structure

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